How much do you know about the HPV vaccine?

by Rachel on July 10, 2010

I spposed to write a six-page document about the vaccine against HPV and why they should be made mandatory. My mind goes blank. Can someone give me facts or points of interest on this subject?

{ 4 comments… read them below or add one }

IMEE L July 10, 2010 at 1:45 am

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a group of more than 100 viruses. They are called papillomaviruses because certain types may cause warts, or papillomas, which are benign (noncancerous) tumors. The HPVs that cause the common warts that grow on hands and feet are different from those that cause growths in the throat or genital area. Some types of HPV are associated with certain types of cancer. These are called “high-risk” oncogenic or carcinogenic HPVs.

Why are these vaccines important?
Widespread vaccination has the potential to reduce cervical cancer deaths around the world by as much as two-thirds, if all women were to take the vaccine and if protection turns out to be long-term. In addition, the vaccines can reduce the need for medical care, biopsies, and invasive procedures associated with the follow-up from abnormal Pap tests, thus helping to reduce health care costs and anxieties related to abnormal Pap tests and follow-up procedures

wax July 10, 2010 at 1:59 am

Between 75-90% of cases of cervical cancer are caused by HPV. The vaccine that has been developed is as close to 100% effective as it can get at immunizing people against HPV.

The vaccine is supposed to be administered to girls before they start menstruating, so about 12 yrs old.

Marcus July 10, 2010 at 2:48 am

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a vaccine designed to immunize against certain sexually transmitted diseases, such as cervical cancer and genital warts, which are caused by human papillomaviruses. The only HPV vaccine currently on the market is Gardasil, with a second vaccine, Cervarix, currently in clinical trials.

Of the more than 120 known HPV types, 37 are known to be transmitted through sexual contact. Infection with sexually transmitted HPVs is very common in adult populations worldwide. Although a few HPVs, such as types 6 and 11, can cause genital warts, most genital HPV infections come and go without ever causing any symptoms. However, lingering infections with a subset of about 19 “high-risk” HPV types can lead to the development of cervical cancer or other genital/anal cancers.

The latest generation of preventive HPV vaccines are based on hollow virus-like particles (VLPs) assembled from recombinant HPV coat proteins. The vaccines target the two most common high-risk HPVs, types 16 and 18. Together, these two HPV types cause about 70 percent of all cervical cancer. Gardasil also targets HPV types 6 and 11, which together cause about 90 percent of all cases of genital warts

Gardasil and Cervarix are designed to elicit virus-neutralizing antibody responses that prevent initial infection with the HPV types represented in the vaccine. The vaccines have been shown to offer 100 percent protection against the development of cervical pre-cancers and genital warts caused by the HPV types in the vaccine, with few or no side effects. The protective effects of the vaccine are expected to last a minimum of 4.5 years after the initial vaccination.

While the study period was not long enough for cervical cancer to develop, the prevention of these cervical precancerous lesions (or dysplasias) is believed highly likely to result in the prevention of those cancers.

Although a 2006 study suggests that the vaccines may offer limited protection against a few HPV types that are closely related to HPVs 16 and 18, it is clear that other high-risk HPV types can circumvent the vaccines.[2] Ongoing laboratory research is focused on the development of HPV vaccines that will offer protection against a broader range of HPV types. There is also substantial research interest in the development of therapeutic vaccines, which seek to elicit immune responses against established HPV infections and HPV-induced cancers.

In developed countries, the widespread use of cervical “Pap smear” cancer screening has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive cervical cancer. Since the current generation of preventive vaccines will not protect against all the HPV types that can cause cervical cancer, it will be important for women to continue to seek regular Pap smear screening, even after vaccination.

Pap smear screening is too expensive for routine use in developing countries and HPV-induced cervical cancer remains the fifth most common cancer in women worldwide.[6] Thus HPV vaccines are most urgently needed in developing countries. With a cost of $360, Gardasil is the most expensive vaccine ever developed. The vaccine will be too expensive for initial use in developing countries unless substantial subsidies are offered. Merck has announced that it intends to support programs to offer Gardasil to disadvantaged women worldwide.[7] The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has also expressed interest in helping make preventive HPV vaccines available to women in developing countries. Through the PATH organization, a nonprofit organization whose mission is to improve the health of people worldwide by advancing technologies, the Gates Foundation has donated $27.8 million to implement HPV vaccines. Starting in January 2007, women in India, Peru, Uganda and Vietnam will be receiving the vaccine.

The vaccine was developed in parallel by researchers at Georgetown University Medical Center, the University of Rochester, Queensland University in Australia, and the U.S. National Cancer Institute. Intellectual property resulting from the discovery has been contentious. Following over 10 years of adjudication, the European Patent Office awarded the controlling patent for the cervical cancer vaccine to the University of Rochester. Following this, the U.S. Patent Office recognized Georgetown University as having the dominant patent claim in the United States, based on filing date.[8] [9]

In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first preventive HPV vaccine, marketed by Merck & Co. under the tradename Gardasil. Early in 2007, GlaxoSmithKline is expected to seek approval in the United States for a similar preventive HPV vaccine, known as Cervarix. In the European Union, GlaxoSmithKline filed the application for approval in March 2006

In addition to preventive vaccines, such as Gardasil and Cervarix, laboratory research and several human clinical trials are focused on the development of therapeutic HPV vaccines. In general these vaccines focus on the main HPV oncogenes, E6 and E7. Since expression of E6 and E7 is required for promoting the growth of cervical cancer cells (and cells within warts), it is hoped that immune responses against the two oncogenes might eradicate established tumors.[

tarnishedsilverheart July 10, 2010 at 2:55 am

HPV is estimated to affect about 20 million
people in the US, according to the CDC. Two strains of this virus
account for 70% of all cervical cancers, and two other strains
account for 90% of genital warts. These four strains are targeted by
the HPV vaccines,

if mandated the insurance companies would have to cover the
costs. As one doctor in Tennessee wrote, “The politics of mandating a
particular vaccine are primarily that a mandated vaccine will get
paid for by insurers while the optional vaccines tend not to get
covered for a long while (e.g., Hepatitis A vaccine).”

A strong majority (63%) of physicians surveyed believe that
certain groups are wrong in arguing mandating the HPV vaccine
promotes promiscuity.

HPV types 16 and 18 are found in vulva, vaginal neck and head throat cancers. The mandate of the vaccine will help provide protect to these cancers.

Costs of HPV-6/11 disease
The principal healthcare costs caused by HPV-6/11 are through GWs and
RRP. Recent UK- and USA-specific data on the costs of treatment of GWs
in routine clinical practice [38] and [39] estimated the cost of a
single successful episode of treatment of a case of GWs to be £216 ($
377) in the UK and $ 436 in the USA. Using the UK STI clinic 2004 GWs
prevalence data, this equates to around £31 million ($ 54 million) per
annum for the UK. One study from the USA estimated the annual direct
healthcare costs of GWs as $ 200 million [40]. In a report from the
Task Force on RRP, the annual cost for surgical procedures in the USA
was estimated to be $ 109 million for JORRP and $ 42 million for AORRP
[27]. In countries with cervical screening programmes there will also
be significant costs associated with HPV-6/11-associated abnormal
cytology and consequent procedures, although estimates of these costs
are not available.

HPV considerable burden to women and economy
29 March 2007
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2007; 196: 206-12
The burden human papillomavirus (HPV) places on a woman’s quality of
life is second only to HIV, research shows.
When scientists carried out a systematic review of the impact of
cervical HPV they found that it heavily influenced women’s emotional,
social, and sexual well-being.
Rachel Fleurence (Health Care Analytics Group, Bethesda, Maryland,
USA) and colleagues reviewed nine economic and 24 quality-of-life
HPV-infected women experienced a great deal of anxiety and concern
regarding their condition.
They commonly felt anger, shame, guilt, less desirable, and were
often overcome by low self-esteem and a negative body image.
Most studies reported that women’s sexual relationships worsened
after a diagnosis of HPV.
Annual healthcare costs associated with HPV in the US ranged from
$2.5 to 4.6 billion (Euros 1.9-3.4 billion), which the scientists say
represents a “significant financial burden.”
They add that this is the “most comprehensive picture to date of both
the economic and quality-of-life burden of cervical HPV disease.”
Fleurence and team conclude: “Given the burden of HPV, preventative
strategies such as vaccination or the availability of treatment would
provide a significant economic relief for the health care system and
improve the quality of life of patients who are affected by HPV.”

I have just cut and pasted some of the stuff I find interesting.

Current media and medical news regarding HPV and the vaccine can be found at our HPV info group.

I am sure you will find more useful information at our info site.

Good luck with your paper.

I have been HPV positive for 8 years. I have high risk HPV of the vulva and the vaginal cuff.

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